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Early history[ edit ] A Chinese printed playing card dated c. Chinese playing cards Playing cards may have been invented during the Tang dynasty around the 9th century AD as a result of the usage of woodblock printing technology. It describes Princess Tongchang, daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tangplaying the "leaf game" in with members of the Wei clan, the family of the princess' husband.
It received commentary by writers of subsequent dynasties. However, these cards did not contain suits or numbers. Instead, they were printed with instructions or forfeits for whomever drew them.
Using paper money was inconvenient and risky so they were substituted by play money known as "money cards". One of the earliest games in which we know the rules is madiaoa trick-taking gamewhich dates to the Ming Dynasty — The two latter suits had Water Margin characters instead of pips on them : The suit of coins is in reverse order with 9 of coins being the lowest going up to 1 of coins as the high card.
Every suit contains twelve cards with the top two usually being the court cards of king and vizier and the bottom ten being pip cards. Half the suits use reverse ranking for their pip cards. There are many motifs for the suit pips but some include coins, clubs, jugs, and swords which resemble later Mamluk and Latin suits.
Michael Dummett speculated that Mamluk cards may have descended from an earlier deck which consisted of 48 cards divided into four suits each with ten pip cards and two court cards.
By the 11th century, playing cards were spreading throughout the Asian continent and later came into Egypt. They are dated to the 12th and 13th centuries late FatimidAyyubidand early Mamluk periods.
In fact, the word "Kanjifah" appears in Arabic on the king of swords and is still used in parts of the Middle East to describe modern playing cards.
Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchakscalled their cups tuman which means myriad in Turkic, Mongolian and Jurchen languages.
The Mamluk court cards showed abstract designs or calligraphy not depicting persons possibly due to religious proscription in Sunni Islamthough they did bear the ranks on the cards.
Panels on the pip cards in two suits show they had a reverse ranking, a feature found in madiao, ganjifa, and old European card games like ombretarotand maw.
Tarot Knave of Coins from the oldest known European deck c. Four-suited playing cards are first attested in Southern Europe in and are likely derived from the Mamluk suits of cups, coins, swords, and polo-sticks, which are still used in traditional Latin decks.
In his book of accounts for orCharles or Charbot Poupart, treasurer of the household of Charles VI of Francerecords payment for the painting of three sets of cards. Playing cards even competed with devotional images as the most common uses for woodcuts in this period.
Most early woodcuts of all types were coloured after printing, either by hand or, from about onwards, stencils. These 15th-century playing cards were probably painted.
The Flemish Hunting Deckheld by the Metropolitan Museum of Art is the oldest complete set of ordinary playing cards made in Europe from the 15th century.Edit Article How to Write a Research Paper. In this Article: Article Summary Choosing Your Topic Researching Making an Outline Writing Your Paper Sample Research Papers and Outlines Community Q&A When studying at higher levels of school and throughout college, you will likely be asked to prepare research papers.
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