As an ecosystem, widely taken, it includes freshwater rivers, reservoirs and lakesmarine oceans and seas and estuarine coastal, bays, tidal ecosystems. The Ethiopian aquatic ecosystem has high diversity areas such as major rivers and lakes that are of great national and international importance. The country is well known for its richness in water potential.
The IGAD region covers an area of 5. The IGAD community is strategically located in the Horn of Africa and blessed with a good climate, rich hinterland, a long coastline with deep natural ports and situated in the major geopolitical and geo-economical location of the Red Sea and Suez Canal, with busy traffic routes for tourism and commodity markets in Africa, the Far East, Middle East, and Europe.
The IGAD region is endowed with substantial natural resources such as oil and gas reserves, wildlife, high historical and natural tourism potential, diverse ecosystems, alternative energy resources hydroelectric, solar and geothermalmarine, water and livestock resources.
IGAD is an agrarian region in which agriculture, including both crop and livestock production, remains the backbone of the economy.
Employing an overwhelming majority of the population, and contributing almost half of the overall GDP, exports of agricultural primary commodities still constitute more than 60 percent of export earnings.
The opportunity for the expansion of agricultural products and livestock remains untapped. With an estimated livestock population of hundreds of millions, the IGAD region has not made adequate use of its resources. The Security nexus of water security, food security and energy security will increasingly be pronounced in the arid and semi-arid lands ASALs of IGAD as the demand for fresh water exceeds that available for people and livestock.
This problem has been compounded by weak support from government and competition for resources amongst water users, which creates the potential for Asals ecosystems conflict. Most water-related interventions are short term and target a single problem, rather than the entire Asals ecosystems set of problems that communities face.
Looking at the individual performance of the import and export trade regimes in Member States, the export sector reflects significant growth. Nevertheless, the diversifications of export items as well as their export destinations have not increased. Due to poor manufacturing sector performance, the balance of trade remains negative and may continue as such for the near to medium future.
Agri-processing and non-traditional commodities such as horticultural crops including flowers and meat products have increased in recent years, but the share of these commodities in terms of total export earnings is quite low. Thus, about 40 percent of the total landmass is considered agriculturally unproductive.
Soft security relates to human vulnerabilities, extreme poverty, social injustice and discrimination, unjust inequality as well as socio-economic and political shocks. With severe climatic changes and environmental degradation and heavy dependence on agriculture and livestock, the region is very prone to persistent extremes of severe droughts and flooding.
Due to protracted conflicts and unresponsive governance, the populations in the IGAD region regularly experience droughts and disasters that easily fester into grave food insecurity and famine. In the arid borderlands of IGAD, droughts are frequent and often devastating and can cause communal clashes over scarce pastures and water resources.
Drought in and affected more than 22 million people in the IGAD region that caused many deaths and massive displacement, often in resources-scarce border areas.
Resource scarcity, displaced communities, poverty and underdevelopment in the border areas are exacerbating both communal conflict and civil wars. Indeed, this reflects the instability of the region.
IGAD also runs the peace process in Somalia. This requires both regional infrastructure as well as the gradual harmonization of policies for the removal of physical and non-physical barriers to inter-state transport and communications. IGAD has successfully developed more than 32 policy related documents dealing with integration, economic development and peace and development.
Nonetheless, the region has lagged behind in seizing integrative opportunities except in regard to infrastructural development. In the past ten years, IGAD has shown significant achievements in building economically critical multifaceted infrastructures.
Infrastructural development anchors integration in sound economic fundamentals. Once built, they are more sustainable, avoiding too much dependence on top-down initiatives, and could have a positive impact on local communities along infrastructural lines.
People, skills and capital follow in the wake of easy and less costly transportation and communication infrastructure. Fast mobility of people, goods and services expand opportunities for more sustainable integration.
There were great hopes at the outset that reliance on such outside funding would be constrained by cost-sharing among the three countries, Ethiopia, Kenya and South Sudan. Kenya pledged to fund twenty five percent of the budgets or devote approximately six per cent of its annual Gross Domestic Product to the project during the first five years of construction, and then subsequently three or four per cent of annual GDP.
The expectation was that Ethiopia and South Sudan would also cover the costs for their shares of the project. South Sudan and Ethiopia were expected to seek donor assistance to secure the necessary finance.
These transport corridors are instrumental for promoting economic efficiency, as they link several economic centres through various modes of transport. Among the road, air, marine and rail transportation sectors the road sector has been the most dominant.
This includes 4,km of road construction of which 1, km have been completed in Ethiopia. Located at the geographic centre of IGAD, Ethiopia, for its part, has already completed road construction within its borders. Currently, Ethiopia is connected with Kenya, Sudan and Djibouti through road networks and additionally with Djibouti by railway.
The Ethiopian part of the road to South Sudan is also complete.Degradation of ecosystems is also evident, causing a loss of grazing land and key resource areas. Land fragmentation resulting from the subdivision of communal land and subsequent privatisation is now common in ASALs, leading to changes that are inconsistent with rational and sustainable land use.
ASALs account for about 80% of the land area of the countries in the Horn of Africa (HoA). Pastoral, agro-pastoral rain-fed agriculture and livestock production systems are the primary economic enterprise and main economic driver in the ASALs.
I. Introduction. IGAD is a Regional Economic Community (REC) in Eastern Africa and one of the eight building blocks of the African Economic Community (AEC) of the African Union (AU). ASALs account for 70% of the land area of the countries in the Greater Horn of Africa.
ASALs are a discrete geographic area in the Greater Horn of Africa where the population is vulnerable. The shared agro-ecosystem, including natural resources such as water and pastures and common production systems, offers an opportunity for cooperation .
decision making for sustainable growth and adaptation can best be supported, in light of current challenges and opportunities. The ecosystems and to discuss the various Stakeholder Workshop on Sustainable Growth and Adaptation in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya. Description. Description Aquatic in literal meaning refers to water.
As an ecosystem, widely taken, it includes freshwater (rivers, reservoirs and lakes), marine (oceans and seas) and estuarine (coastal, bays, tidal) ecosystems.